BioScience Trends. 2019;13(5):441-447. (DOI: 10.5582/bst.2019.01282)
Mutation analysis of the SLC26A4 gene in three Chinese families.
Wen C, Wang SJ, Zhao XL, Wang XL, Wang XY, Cheng XH, Huang LH
In order to investigate the genetic causes of hearing loss in a Chinese proband (in Family A) with enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA) and to investigate the genotype of two Chinese probands with SLC26A4 singe-allelic mutation and normal hearing (in Families B and C, respectively), the three probands and their parents were clinically and genetically evaluated. Twenty exons and flanking splice sites of the SLC26A4 gene were screened for pathogenic mutations via amplification with PCR and bidirectional sequencing. As controls, a group of 400 healthy newborns from the same ethnic background underwent SLC26A4 gene screening using the same method. The three probands all harbored two mutations in the SLC26A4 gene in the form of compound heterozygosity. The genotypes of mutations in Families A, B, and C are c.1211C>A/c.919-2A>G, c.1729G>A/c.919-2A>G, and c.1286C>A/c.919-2A>G, respectively. The missense mutations c.1211C>A (p.T430Q) in exon 10 and c.1729G>A (p.V577I) in exon 16 are both reported for the first time and were absent in 400 healthy newborns. c.1211C>A has Glutamine (Gln) at amino acid 430 instead of Threonine (Thr), and c.1729G>A has Isoleucine (Ile) at amino acid 577 instead of Valine (Val). c.1286C>A, a mutation previously reported in DVD and HGMD, was associated with Mondini deformity, but a proband with the c.1286C>A mutation in this study was normal. This study has demonstrated that the novel missense mutation c.1211C>A in compound heterozygosity with c.919-2A>G in the SLC26A4 gene is likely to be the cause of deafness in Family A. A novel variant, c.1729G>A, was identified and is likely benign. The pathogenicity of the c.1286C>A mutation warrants more in-depth study. These findings will broaden the spectrum of known SLC26A4 mutations in the Chinese population, providing more information for genetic counseling and diagnosis of hearing loss with EVA.