BioScience Trends. 2021;15(1):9-15. (DOI: 10.5582/bst.2020.01039)

The immunological characteristics of gallbladder carcinoma and advances in immunotherapy practices

Cheng HH, Zhou D, Wang SH, Ding J, Ma F


Gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) is one of the most common malignant tumors in the biliary system, ranking sixth among gastrointestinal malignancies. In addition, the incidence of GBC has recently increased in China. GBC metastasizes early and invades adjacent organs such as the liver, making patients with GBC ineligible for radical surgery and giving them a poor prognosis. What is more, GBC is more inclined to develop chemo-resistance, which requires new strategies for clinical intervention. Cancer immunotherapy has made great advances over the past few years, with improved clinical efficacy against multiple malignancies, including GBC. This review summarizes the immunological characteristics of GBC as well as current advances in immunotherapies for GBC in order to provide new insights into future treatment and prevention of GBC.

KEYWORDS: gallbladder carcinoma, immunological characteristic, immunotherapy practices, vaccine, adoptive immunotherapy, cytokine

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