BioScience Trends. 2021;15(6):406-412. (DOI: 10.5582/bst.2021.01279)
Cytomegalovirus viremia is associated with poor outcomes in AIDS patients with disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterial disease
Tian B, Sun JJ, Bai JS, Zhang RF, Liu J, Shen YZ, Li CX, Liu L, Chen J, Qi TK, Lu HZ
Both cytomegalovirus (CMV) viremia and disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) disease are common opportunistic infections in AIDS patients. Whether concurrent CMV viremia is associated with mortality in patients with AIDS and disseminated NTM disease is unknown. Subjects were patients with AIDS and disseminated NTM disease seen at a single center from January 2015 to April 2021. Data were retrospectively collected. Differences in demographics and clinical characteristics and hospitalization survival rates were compared between patients with disseminated NTM and with CMV viremia or not. Subjects were 113 AIDS patients with disseminated NTM who were seen at this Hospital from January 2015 to April 2021. Twenty-six of the patients had CMV viremia and 87 did not. The median age was 36 years (interquartile range [IQR] 29-42) and 108 patients were male (96%). The median CD4 count was 7 cells/μL (IQR 3-17). The median plasma CMV viral load was 9,245 IU/mL (IQR 3147-45725). The serum albumin of patients with CMV viremia was significantly lower than that of patients without CMV viremia (P = 0.03). Compared to patients without CMV viremia (81.6%), patients with CMV viremia had a significantly poorer prognosis (P = 0.01). Cox regression analysis indicated that the risk of a poor prognosis in patients with CMV viremia was 4.7 times higher than that in patients without CMV viremia (P = 0.003), and patients with CD8 more than 250/μL had a better prognosis (P = 0.02). CMV viremia increases the risk of a poor prognosis in patients with AIDS and a disseminated NTM infection. A routine CMV DNA test should be performed on patients with AIDS and disseminated NTM disease in order to reduce the risk of death.