BioScience Trends. 2014;8(1):1-10.
Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, promising potential diagnostic and therapeutic tools for cancer.
Chen JP, Luan Y, Yu RF, Zhang Z, Zhang JB, Wang WB
Despite the advances in detection of and therapies for various tumors, high rates of treatment failure and mortality still exist throughout the world. These high rates are mainly due to the powerful capability of tumor cells to proliferate and migrate. Recent studies regarding the transient receptor potential (TRP) have indicated that TRP channels are associated with tumors and that TRP channels might represent potential targets for cancer treatment. TRP channels are important calcium-selective ion channels in many different tissues and cell types in mammals and are crucial regulators of calcium and sodium. TRP were first discovered in the photoreceptors of Drosophila with gene defects or mutations. TRP channels can be divided into seven subfamilies: TRPC (canonical), TRPV (vanilloid), TRPM (melastatin), TRPML (mucolipin), TRPP (polycystin), TRPA (ankyrin transmembrane protein), and TRPN (NomPC-like). TRPC proteins are conserved across organisms since they are most homologous to Drosophila TRP. TRP superfamilies have been linked to many physiological and pathological functions, including cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, and ion homeostasis. This review focuses on the properties of TRP in oncogenesis, cancer proliferation, and cell migration.